Best Prostate Cancer Treatment Hospital In India

Prostate cancer is cancer that develops in the prostate gland (a male reproductive organ) in men. The prostate gland is a small walnut-shaped gland that produces semen. Prostate cancer is second most common type of cancer in men and is generally seen after the age of 50 years.

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Types of Prostate Cancer

  • ·      Adenocarcinoma: This the most common type of prostate cancer, that accounts for 90% to 95% cases. It is a slow growing type of prostate cancer, that develops in cells lining the glandular organ of the prostate (responsible for the secretion of the substances that form semen) and can spread to other areas (lymph nodes, other organs) beyond the prostate.

    ·      Small cell carcinoma: This rare type of prostate cancer is very aggressive and begins in specialized small round cells inside the prostate. It does not increase prostate-specific antigen levels (PSA) and is difficult to diagnose in early stages.

    ·      Squamous cell carcinoma: This non-glandular carcinoma is another aggressive type of prostate cancer, that just like small cell carcinoma, does not increase PSA levels. 

    ·      Prostatic sarcomas: This extremely rare type of cancer accounts for less than 0.1% of primary prostate cancer and is seen in relatively younger men between 35-60 years of age.  Prostate cancer cell types that can develop into connective tissues, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels make up this tumor.

    ·      Transitional cell carcinomas: Primary tumors present in the bladder or urethra spread to the prostate in this type of cancer, but it rarely starts in the prostate itself.

    Like most other cancers, the cause of prostate cancer is not known. However, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and old age may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

    The following stages are seen in prostate cancer –

    ·      Stage I: In this stage, the cancer is very small and is limited to the prostate.

    ·      Stage II: In this stage, the cancer grows in size and involves both lobes of the prostate. However, it still does not spread beyond the prostate.

    ·      Stage III: This stage involves spread of the cancer beyond the prostate, and may also include nearby structures and lymph nodes.

    ·       Stage IV: In this last stage, the cancer spreads to the bone and/or other organs.

    Patients with prostate cancer present with symptoms like frequent urination, especially at night, inability to urinate while standing up, difficulty in stopping or starting a stream of urine, a weak urinary stream, leaking of urine while coughing or laughing, a burning or painful sensation at the time of ejaculation or urination, blood in semen or urine etc. As the disease progresses further symptoms such as paralysis or weakness in the lower limbs, usually with constipation, stiffness, deep or dull pain in the upper thighs, pelvis, lower back or ribs, swelling in the legs, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss are observed.

    When a patient with the above symptoms visits a physician, a detailed medical history is taken and a physical examination is performed. The physician examines the prostate by inserting a lubricated finger into the rectum, to check for abnormal areas or lumps. After this, the following tests are performed to detect prostate cancer –  

    ·      Biopsy: In this procedure, a thin needle is inserted through the rectum into the prostate (transrectal biopsy) or between the rectum and scrotum (transperineal biopsy), and a tissue sample from the affected area is removed and checked to identify if cancer cells are present.

    ·      Transrectal ultrasound: In this procedure, a probe is inserted into the rectum and images are taken to check the prostate.

    ·      Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test: As men suffering from prostate cancer have high PSA levels, this test is routinely used to check for prostate cancer. However, PSA levels are also high in men suffering from BPH (enlarged and non-cancerous prostate), or inflammation or infection of the prostate.

    Nowadays, several treatment options are available to treat prostate cancer. They are as follows–

    Hormone Therapy: As male sex hormones promote the growth of prostate cancer, hormone therapy involves the use of hormones, drugs or surgeries to block or reduce the production of male hormones. It uses drugs such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or female hormones like estrogens (that prevent the testes from producing male hormones), other drugs that prevent the adrenal glands from making male hormones and anti-androgens that block the effects of male hormones. It also includes surgeries like orchiectomy that remove one or more testicles to reduce hormone production.

    Surgery: Patients in good overall health are treated with surgical procedures like transurethral resection of the prostate (removal of cancerous prostate tissue through the urethra), radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate and some of the tissue around through an incision in the perineum or abdominal wall) or pelvic lymphadenectomy (removal and examination of lymph nodes in the pelvis to check if they contain cancer, followed by removal of prostate)

    Radiation therapy: In this therapy, high-energy X-rays or rays emitted from metals like radium are used to destroy cancer cells.

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